By Francesca De Chatel
"There is none amongst the believers who plants a tree, or sows a seed, and then a bird, or a person, or an animal eats thereof, but it is regarded as having given a charitable gift [for which there is great recompense]." [Al-Bukhaari, III:513].
The idea of the Prophet Muhammad sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam as a pioneer of environmentalism will initially strike many as strange: indeed, the term "environment" and related concepts like "ecology", "environmental awareness" and "sustainability"
, are modern-day inventions, terms that were formulated in the face of the growing concerns about the contemporary state of the natural world around us.
And yet a closer reading of the hadeeth, the body of work that recounts significant events in the Prophet sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam's life, reveals that he was a staunch advocate of environmental protection. One could say he was an "environmentalist avant la lettre", a pioneer in the domain of conservation, sustainable development and resource management, and one who constantly sought to maintain a harmonious balance between man and nature. From all accounts of his life and deeds, we read that the Prophet sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam had a profound respect for fauna and flora, as well as an almost visceral connection to the four elements, earth, water, fire and air.
He was a strong proponent of the sustainable use and cultivation of land and water, proper treatment of animals, plants and birds, and the equal rights of users. In this context the modernity of the Prophet sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam's view of the environment and the concepts he introduced to his followers is particularly striking; certain passages of the hadeeth could easily be mistaken for discussions about contemporary environmental issues.
The Prophet sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam's environmental philosophy is first of all holistic: it assumes a fundamental link and interdependency between all natural elements and bases its teachings on the premise that if man abuses or exhausts one element, the natural world as a whole will suffer direct consequences. This belief is nowhere formulated in one concise phrase; it is rather an underlying principle that forms the foundation of all the Prophet sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam's actions and words, a life philosophy that defined him as a person.
The three most important principles of the Prophet sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam's philosophy of nature are based on the Qur`aanic teachings and the concepts of Tawheed (unity), Khaleefa (stewardship) and Amaana (trust).
Tawheed, the oneness of Allaah Subhaanahu wa Ta`aala, is a cornerstone of the Islamic faith. It recognizes the fact that there is one absolute Creator and that man is responsible to Him for all his actions:
"To Allaah belongs all that is in the heavens and in the earth, for Allaah encompasses everything [4:126]."
The Prophet sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam acknowledges that Allaah Subhaanahu wa Ta`aala's knowledge and power covers everything. Therefore abusing one of his creations, whether it is a living being or a natural resource, is a sin. The Prophet sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam considered all of Allaah Subhaanahu wa Ta`aala's creations to be equal before Allaah and he believed animals, but also land, forests and watercourses should have rights.
The concepts of Khaleefa, Stewardship, and Amaana, Trust, emerge from the principle of Tawheed. The Qur`aan explains that mankind holds a privileged position among Allaah's creations on earth: he is chosen as Khaleefa, "vice-regent" and carries the responsibility of caring for Allaah Subhaanahu wa Ta`aala's earthly creations. Each individual is given this task and privilege in the form of Allaah Subhaanahu wa Ta`aala's trust. But the Qur`aan repeatedly warns believers against arrogance: they are no better than other creatures.
"No creature is there on earth nor a bird flying with its wings but they are nations like you [6:38]";
"Surely the creation of the heavens and the earth is greater than the creation of man; but most people know not". [40:57]
The Prophet sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam believed that the universe and the creations in it animals, plants, water, land were not created for mankind. Man is allowed to use the resources but he can never own them. Thus while Islam allows land ownership, it has limitations: an owner can, for example, only own land if he uses it; once he ceases to use it, he has to part with his possession.
The Prophet sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam recognized man's responsibility to Allaah Subhaanahu wa Ta`aala but always maintained humility. Thus he said: "When doomsday comes, if someone has a palm shoot in his hand, he should plant it," suggesting that even when all hope is lost for mankind, one should sustain nature's growth. He believed that nature remains a good in itself, even if man does not benefit from it.
Similarly, the Prophet sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam incited believers to share the earth's resources. He said: "Muslims share alike in three things water, herbage and fire," and he considered it a sin to withhold water from the thirsty. "No one can refuse surplus water without sinning against Allaah and against man". [Mishkat al Masabih].
The Prophet sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam's attitude towards sustainable use of land, conservation of water and the treatment of animals is a further illustration of the humility of his environmental philosophy.
Sustainable Use of Land
"The earth has been created for me as a mosque and as a means of purification." [Al-Bukhaari I:331] With these words the Prophet sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam emphasizes the sacred nature of earth or soil, not only as a pure entity but also as a purifying agent. This reverence towards soil is also demonstrated in the ritual of tayammum, or "dry wudoo" which permits the use of dust in the performance of ritual purification before prayer when water is not available.
The Prophet sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam saw earth as subservient to man, but recognised that it should not be overexploited or abused, and that it had rights, like the trees and wildlife living on it. In order to protect land, forests and wildlife, the Prophet sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam created inviolable zones known as himaa and haraam, in which resources were to be left untouched. Both are still in use today: haraam areas are often drawn up around wells and water sources to protect the groundwater table from over-pumping. Himaa applies particularly to wildlife and forestry and usually designates an area of land where grazing and woodcutting are restricted, or where certain animal species are protected.
The Prophet sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam not only encouraged the sustainable use of fertile lands, he also told his followers of the benefits of making unused land productive: planting a tree, sowing a seed and irrigating dry land were all regarded as charitable deeds. "Whoever brings dead land to life, that is, cultivates wasteland, for him is a reward therein." Thus any person who irrigates a plot of "dead", or desert land becomes its rightful owner.
Conservation of Water
In the harsh desert environment where the Prophet sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam lived, water was synonymous to life. Water was a gift from Allaah, the source of all life on earth as is testified in the Qur`aan:
"We made from water every living thing" [21:30].
The Qur`aan constantly reminds believers that they are but the guardians of Allaah Subhaanahu wa Ta`aala's creation on earth and that they should never take this creation for granted:
"Consider the water which you drink. Was it you that brought it down from the rain cloud or We? If We had pleased, We could make it bitter" [56:68-70].
Saving water and safeguarding its purity were two important issues for the Prophet: we have seen that his concern about the sustainable use of water led to the creation of haraam zones in the vicinity of water sources. But even when water was abundant, he advocated thriftiness: thus he recommended that believers perform wudoo no more than three times, even if they were near to a flowing spring or river.
Imaam Al-Bukhaari added: "The men of science disapprove of exaggeration and also of exceeding the number of ablutions of the Prophet."
The Prophet sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam also warned against water pollution by forbidding urination in stagnant water.
The Treatment of Animals"If anyone wrongfully kills even a sparrow let alone anything greater, he will face Allaah's interrogation" [Mishkat al Masabih]. These words reflect the great reverence, respect and love that the Prophet always showed towards animals. He believed that as part of Allaah Subhaanahu wa Ta`aala's creation, animals should be treated with dignity, and the hadeeth contains a large collection of traditions, admonitions and stories about his relationship to animals. It shows that he had particular consideration for horses and camels: to him they were valiant companions during journey and battle, and he found great solace and wisdom in their presence as the following tradition reveals:
"In the forehead of horses are tied up welfare and bliss until the Day of Resurrection."
Even in the slaughter of animals, the Prophet sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam showed great gentleness and sensitivity. While he did not practice vegetarianism, the ahadeeth clearly show that the Prophet sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam was extremely sensitive to the suffering of animals, almost as though he shared their pain viscerally. Thus he recommends using sharp knives and a good method so that the animal can die a quick death with as little pain as possible. He also warned against slaughtering an animal in the presence of other animals, or letting the animal witness the sharpening of blades: to him that was equal to "slaughtering the animal twice" and he emphatically condemned such practices as "abominable".
It is impossible to do justice to the full scope and significance of Prophet Muhammad sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam's environmental philosophy in this short article. His holistic view of nature and his understanding of man's place within the natural world pioneered environmental awareness within the Muslim community.
Sadly, the harmony that the Prophet sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam advocated between man and his environment has today all too often been lost. As we face the effects of pollution and overexploitation, desertification and water scarcity in some parts of the world and floods and violent storms elsewhere, it is perhaps time for the world community as a whole, Muslims, Christians and Jews, Hindus and Buddhists, atheists and agnostics, to take a leaf out of the Prophet sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam's book and address the current environmental crisis seriously and wisely.
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